The Balance of Language, Content, and Culture Teaching in Mandarin Immersion Classes
Yidan Shao, Ph.D. Student in ICI Program, Fordham University
The research will be a case study to investigate teachers’ experience on their Mandarin teaching of language, content, and culture. Data will be collected by doing observations and semi-interviews with a middle school teacher who teach from grade 6 to 8 levels in a private school. The approach for the research is the sheltered instruction observation protocol (SIOP), which contains eight components with thirty features for teachers’ pedagogical instructions. The potential directions are the strategies they use to achieve students’ language and content acquisition, and the benefits or challenges they meet during this teaching process. The research is of significance for teachers. This is a review of their Mandarin teaching, which can help them adjust and refine their teaching strategies at the same time.
Keywords: Mandarin Immersion, Balance, Strategies, Benefits and Challenges
Implementation Mechanism Study Based on Online Immersive Chinese Teaching
Yi Liu, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming, Yunnan,China
The Chinese immersion programs have received wildly welcome in the United States recent years, especially for students from kindergarten to 12th grade (K-12). Researches on this emerged rapidly as the program progressed. However, the program encountered great challenges since the outbreak of COVID-19 and how to carry out online immersive Chinese teaching is an urgent problem. This study aims to point out what the characteristics of online immersive Chinese teaching are, how the online immersive Chinese teaching is implemented and how to apply in different learning fields. The implementation mechanism is realized by the combination of technology promotion, content design and interactive forms based on online immersive Chinese teaching. The online immersive Chinese learning experience enables learners obtain different learning patterns from traditional classrooms through observation,experience,interaction,and inquiry. It can be applied in the teaching areas such as Chinese language cognition, teaching cultural context, and creative thinking. The study discussed that online immersive teaching should be an effective supplement to face-to-face teaching in the post pandemic times and both teachers and students should be active in bracing new technology and apply in teaching activities.
Keywords: Online Chinese teaching, Immersive teaching, Implementation mechanism
Data Based Research on the Application and Characteristics of Immersion Chinese Language Instruction in the United States: The Case of Utah
Ziwen ZHAO1 Wei JIN2 Antong LUO3 Huizhen XU1
1.Minzu university of China, 2.East China Normal University, 3.Nanjing University
In recent years, immersion projects in the U.S. have been developing rapidly with the rise of Chinese language fever. Utah, as one of the states with the most significant number of immersion projects in the United States, represents the development of immersion Chinese language instruction to a certain extent. However, while this instructional method of education is developing, more problems need to be solved: the shortage of teachers, the autonomy and variability of teaching materials, and the lack of a unified Chinese syllabus. In promoting education informalization, it has become an inevitable choice to promote integrating information technology and subjects. Therefore, this study extensively collected information on teachers, teaching materials, and classroom practice of immersion in Chinese teaching in Utah and established a database. Following a summary of the current situation, the author revealed the application and the characteristics of immersion Chinese instruction in Utah. The findings of the study contribute to our understanding of the classroom practice of immersion Chinese language instruction in Utah. In addition, this study conducted in-depth interviews with teachers who have used immersion Chinese instruction in Utah, collected front-line data and confirmed cases, and combined them with the database to summarize and analyze the deficiency of immersion Chinese instruction in Utah to provide some suggestions for the development of it. We can confirm the ongoing development trend of this instructional method by investigating the effect of immersion Chinese language instruction in Utah during the pandemic period.
Keywords: Utah; Chinese; Immersion instruction; database
The Impact of Immersion Education on Chinese Children's Native Language Vocabulary Size and Language Fluency
Xiaoyu Xue, University of Southampton, UK
Xueli Liu, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, China
Immersion education has been widely used in language learning and teaching since it helps students learn the subject cognitively and naturally. Although great progress has been made in both theoretical and practical development, the use of this method in Chinese context is not mature and well-established. The present study was designed to investigate the characteristics and superiorities of immersion education compared with the traditional teaching method. Specifically speaking, it explores two research questions. (1)Does immersion education have an impact on students’ vocabulary size and how does the method affect it? (2)Does immersion education have an impact on students’ language fluency and how does the method affect it? 48 children, all Chinese native speakers from two parallel classes at a public primary school in China, participated in this study. One-half of these participants were taken as a control group, and another half were taken as an experimental group who immersed in the class. This longitudinal study was conducted online with the aid of mobile devices lasting for two months. The results showed that the student-centered mode made a difference; that is, in the immersion group, there is a significant increase in the vocabulary size of their target language, and a significant improvement in their language fluency, implying that students made a noteworthy improvement in their social interaction and communicative competence. This study may provide implications for language-oriented subject education in China, such as creating a language environment and changing teaching subjects.
Keywords: communicative competence, immersion education, language fluency, social interaction, vocabulary size
Creating an Authentic Chinese Immersion Class Environment for Asian-American Learners
Jerry Tianzi Wang, University of Rochester
In recent years, with the increasing number of immigrants in the United States, the Chinese community is also expanding. First or second-generation Chinese immigrants usually hope their children can continue to learn Chinese while receiving mainstream American education, so that they can master this heritage language and have closer ties with their Chinese ethnic groups when growing up. However, due to various reasons, such as the shortage of experienced Chinese teachers or the development of Chinese teaching programs in schools, quite a few Asian-American Chinese learners cannot get authentic Chinese language and culture education in the US. This leads to a poor performance of their Chinese language, and even some students gradually lose their interest in learning Chinese. By observing a series of effective Chinese immersion teaching classes at Chinese School of Rochester (CSR) and comparing with the traditional Chinese foreign language teaching classroom mode in the US, this article aims to present and prove that an authentic Chinese immersion class environment is vital for Asian-American Chinese learners.
Keywords: Asian American, authentic language immersion, Chinese education
Project Approach in the Immersion Classroom ---- The House Project
Jianhua "Allen" Zhong, Washington Yu Ying PCS, USA
What is project approach? What does it look like in the immersion classroom? How does it promote language learning? In this presentation, the presenter tries to answer these questions with an example of the house project. Using pictures and videos from the classroom, the presentation will showcase the design and step-by-step implementation of the project. Participants will walk away with strategies as to how to adopt the project approach in their classrooms. Participants will also gain inspiration on how to incorporate learner interests in teaching; how to design an interdisciplinary unit; how to promote learner agency and how to promote language learning in their classrooms.
Keywords: Chinese Immersion, Language Learning, Project Approach
Management Measures to Deal with Classroom Emergencies -- A Case Study of Charinrat Lamphun Technology College in Thailand
Xu Huang, Southwest University of Science and Technology, China
Classroom management is a series of teaching behaviors for teachers to complete teaching tasks, regulate interpersonal relationships, harmonize teaching environment and guide students to learn. Chinese teachers' teaching targets are those students who use Chinese as a second language. When Chinese teachers go to other countries to teach, they are required to master the ability to deal with all kinds of classroom emergencies and to manage the classroom. For example, during class, if teachers encounter phenomena such as students' inattention and violation of classroom discipline, they need to intervene in time and guide students to recover this form, so as to maintain the teaching environment and complete the teaching task. It is the best solution to guide the students who violate the classroom discipline to stop their behaviors , and at the same time, not to affect other students' class. According to the theory of classroom organization, the key to the success of classroom teaching lies in how to deal with the dialectical relationship between student-centered and teacher-led. We are opposed to the teaching mode that teachers dominate everything and students passively accept indoctrination. Nor does it advocate the opposite approach, that is, the extreme practice that students decide everything and teachers blindly follow students. Only when teachers play a leading role in organization and management, can they give full play to students' initiative and enthusiasm, and make the classroom lively and orderly. Taking Charinrat Lamphun Technology College in Thailand as an example, the author analyzes the motivation of students' behavior of suddenly taking out rabbits in class, and expounds how to deal with this situation after it happens. The author sums up the experience after class, consciously improves the ability of teachers' classroom management, and learns strategies to deal with classroom emergencies, with the aim to better deal with related situations in the future.
Keywords: classroom contingency strategies,classroom discipline,teaching management
A Study on Cultural Conflicts in Teaching Chinese as a Second Language and Strategies
Leticia, Southwest University of Science and Technology, China
Language is a part of culture and also a carrier of culture. Teaching Chinese as a Second Language is not only the teaching of language, but also the transmission of culture. Cultural conflict is an inevitable problem in the class, and it is also a key point and difficulty in TCSL. In the multicultural background, resolving cultural conflicts in the class is the key to TCSL. The author collects and analyses a large number of cases of intercultural conflict in the TCSL and interviews some teachers with overseas teaching experience to study the cases of intercultural conflict, explain the manifestations of cultural conflict, and analyze the causes of intercultural conflict. The aim is to provide reference for teachers of TCSL to cultivate diverse ways of thinking, improve intercultural communication skills and enhance intercultural teaching abilities.
Keywords: TCSL, cultural conflicts, intercultural communication
An Action Research on Co-Teaching Partnership between Chinese and Foreign Teachers Overseas
Xueying Feng, Confucius Institute in University of Debrecen
In recent years, there is an increase of the number of local Chinese teachers. Therefore, there are more chances for the local teachers to cooperate with Chinese teachers. In some situation, the local teachers need to teach Chinese with Chinese teachers together in the same classroom, which is a big challenge for both Chinese teachers and local teachers. This article intend to investigate how can Chinese teachers and foreign teachers cooperate to make the teaching outcome best by action research. After three round of research, we constructed a teaching model for the cooperation between Chinese teachers and foreign teachers. In the review stage, we communicate with students or play some games to help students review. In the teaching stage, two teachers need to perform according to the texts. After that, the foreign teacher explain new words and grammars for the students in local language and the Chinese teacher give the students some examples to help students understand the new knowledge. In the practicing stage, we divide the whole class into two groups and both of us only help one of the group to practice Chinese. In the activity stage, the foreign teacher is more like a host and give the students some rules and how to do an activity. The Chinese teacher is more like a jury to give the students some feedback about their language using. In terms of the type of activity, there are 3 type of activity mainly, which is interview activity, performing activity and gaming activity.
Keywords: action research. co-teaching. Chinese teachers. foreign teachers. CFL environment
A Brief Talk about the Selection and Creative Use of Chinese Textbook for Second Language Speakers Under the Oversea Teaching Environment
Jiang Shanshan, Eötvös Loránd University
The compilation of each set of Chinese textbook for second language speakers is based on a specific era background, and the editors have worked hard to compile them according to the principles and purposes of textbook compilation. However, we have to face the reality that when the textbooks are actually in the hands of Chinese teachers, Chinese teachers often find it difficult to have a textbook that is "perfect". When overseas Chinese teachers face a specific language environment, teaching environment, and teaching objects, they feel especially profound. How to select teaching materials well and use them creatively is a top priority for every overseas Chinese teacher, especially for the novice teachers. Once this matter is resolved, teachers will have a grasp on teaching, and students will learn efficiently, then we can achieve a multiplier effect. On the basis of fully considering the various difficulties encountered by overseas Chinese teachers in the process of using textbooks, this paper conducts a preliminary discussion on the principles that overseas Chinese teachers should follow when selecting textbooks and using them creatively. We hope this can play some positive role in the Chinese teaching.
Keywords: Chinese textbook, textbook selection, creative use
A Multi-angle Analysis of "gankuai(赶快)、ganmang(赶忙)" Based on the Corpus and Their Immersive Teaching
Yaqin Yang, Beijing Language and Culture University, China
It is very easy for international students to confuse "hurry up" with "hurry up". At present, there is a phenomenon of mutual interpretation of dictionary definitions, and the number of literatures solely studying this group of words is extremely scarce. Based on the BCC corpus of Beijing Language and Culture University, this paper combines quantitative analysis with qualitative analysis to differentiate "hurry" and "rush" from the aspects of syntax, semantics and pragmatics, focusing less on the similarities and differences. In terms of syntactic function, both of them can be used as adverbials to modify verbs or verbal phrases in a sentence, and they can usually be replaced when describing past events. "Hurry" can be used as a predicate with "Dan", but "hurry" cannot be used when "di" or "di" is added. "Hurry" can be used with the first person, the second person and the third person, "hurry" can not be used with the second person; "Hurry" can be used with the negative adverb "bu", can overlap, can also omit the predicate center and appear alone, "hurry" can not; Both "hurry up" and "hurry up" can be placed after the word phrase "of", but the predicate element after "hurry up" can be omitted or not, and the predicate element after "hurry up" must not be omitted. In terms of semantic features, they all have the semantic features of [+ controllable][+ life]. "Hurry up" is not controlled by reality, while "hurry up" is controlled by reality; "Hurry up" has the expectation of righteousness, "hurry up" does not have the expectation of righteousness. "Hurry" can be used for already or not, and "hurry" can only be used for already. This difference between the already and the yet in the aspect leads to their distinct syntactic expressions, which is also a new discovery: "hurry" can co-occur with willing verbs, mental verbs, "suggestion" verbs and future time words, while "hurry" cannot; Both "hurry up" and "hurry up" can be used concurrently, but "hurry up" is used much more often than "hurry up"; "Hurry up" can be used in declarative sentences, interrogative sentences and imperative sentences, while "hurry up" can only be used in declarative sentences. "Hurry up" can also be used in the hypothetical complex, conditional complex, objective complex and choice complex sentences, because these complex sentences are not necessary, so "hurry up" can not be used. In pragmatic context, "hurry up" is used in the subjective context and "hurry up" is used in the objective statement context.
Keywords: Gnakuai Ganmang corpus immersive teaching
Translanguaging in Bilingual Education: A Systematic Map in the Past Five Years
Yuanhuan He, University of Michigan, USA
Translanguaging, recently popularized by Ofelia García and other scholars in the field of bilingual education, refers to embrace students’ full linguistic repertoire as dynamic resources rather than problems to be solved. To review how translanguaging was used in bilingual education programs in the past five years, especially from pre-school to middle school, a systematic map was developed to examine researchers’ views in translanguaging in terms of the context, research objective, and methodology in the existing empirical studies. I systematically searched the scholarly database (Proquest, Eric) and screened at the title/abstract and full-text level, with included articles incorporated into a Microsoft (MS) Excel database. Seventeen studies satisfied the inclusion criteria and quality check, and they unfolded vivid pictures on translanguaging practices in dual language programs, immersion programs, and other bilingual programs. Among the seventeen included articles, almost half used ethnographic design; in terms of the bilingual programs, the majority, fourteen articles, examined the dual languages in Spanish-English, only two articles on Chinese-English, and one article on French-English; in terms of positionality of the researchers and the participants, only six included articles and two focal teachers within stated their positionality explicitly. This systematic map consolidates available evidence at review level on how translanguaging studies were conducted in the past five years and confirms the existing gaps in translanguaging literature. Closer examination of how participants attitude change on translanguaging practices in future research can advance our understanding on translanguaging pedagogy and inform the effectiveness of bilingual education.
Keywords: translanguaging, bilingualism, systematic map
The Video Curriculum Construction of HSK1-4
Yuanjun Bu, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China
With the rapid development of the internet business, a new revolution in the field of education is emerging, particularly in the language teaching field. Due to the temporal and spatial limitation, online teaching has become a major teaching approach around the world. In this regard, HSK, one of the most important language tests worldwide, understandably, faces some new challenges.
In fact, HSK video curriculum has established itself as one of the most necessary Chinese online learning recourses for people who study or teach Chinese as a second language around the world. Thus, constructing an adequate and useful HSK video curriculum is a really effective solution for this demand.
An investigation about the demand of Chinese language teaching resources showed that the Chinese language teaching resources have the following deficiencies: 1) HSK video resources are very few; 2) The content of some HSK resources is not systematic and too chaotic; 3) Some HSK video courses teach entirely in Chinese language, which creates a language barrier for a novice language learner; 4) Some HSK courses are unreasonably expensive.
Keywords: HSK; video course; Chinese language
The Effect of Audio Inclusion on CSL learners' Reading Comprehension in Online Multimodal Reading Context
Peng Zhang (Justin), Stamford American School Hong Kong, China
Multimodal learning theories indicate that learners can develop better referential links when auditory and visual elements are given concurrently. Existing research in second language acquisition (SLA) has discovered that compared with reading-only (RO), adding audio in a reading-while-listening (RWL) condition could enhance second language acquisition, particularly in reading comprehension (Rasinski, 1990; Chang & Millett, 2013). However, most existing research mainly investigated learning English as a second language (ESL) (Bisson et al., 2015; Chang & Millet, 2015). There is a clear gap in investigating learners' multimodal input processing of learning Chinese as a second language (CSL). CSL learners might process multimodal input differently from ESL learners. Studies on learners' multimodal (visual, auditory, and text) Chinese reading might uncover new insights in this area. This study investigated the comprehension difference of CSL learners reading in RWL and RO conditions. The overarching research question of the study is: To what extent do the reading comprehension scores differ between the two groups (RWL and RO)? The research questions' answers reflected the effect of audio input in online multimodal reading.
Keywords: Chinese as a Second Language (CSL), reading comprehension, multimodal learning
An Evaluation of Chinese Vocabulary Learning Apps for Self-access Extracurricular Learning
1. Jingru Xiao, 2. Minming Zhao, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, China
More and more mobile applications have been used by students independently for extracurricular Chinese vocabulary acquisition. Based on a needs analysis of Chinese learners, the current study designed a checklist for evaluating Chinese vocabulary learning apps, and used it to assess six apps. Applying the checklist revealed that half of the selected apps lacked sharing and motivation mechanisms, and also performed poorly in the feedback system. The applications performed best in the category of content quality and usability. An app called trainchinese was chosen by getting the highest score on the checklist, and then was experienced by three volunteers. Results showed that it can only partially meet the needs of learners for Chinese vocabulary learning in practical experience, which indicates that most related apps have a lot to improve.
Keywords: evaluation, learning Chinese as a second language, mobile applications, self-access language learning, vocabulary learning
The Application of Instant Student Feedback System in Teaching Activities Based on Web Technology－Taking Chinese Medicine Course as an Example
Jianmei Yang, Goldsmith Confucius Institute for Dance and Performance at London University, UK
At present, although there are many learning platforms based on Web technology in China, they focus more on autonomous learning mode. The research on the smart client of student feedback system is still shallow. This study attempts to use two popular online student feedback platforms, taking Kahoot! and Socrative as examples (as shown in figure 1), to explore the teaching mode of Chinese Medicine course in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) universities under the support of the instant student feedback system based on Web technology, in order to effectively address the problem of time-delayed student feedback and enrich the research results of the student feedback system.
I used to teach at the Confucius Institute of Shiming University in South Korea, which is a Confucius Institute with traditional Chinese medicine as its feature. There are mainly two types of foreign students. One is students majoring in traditional Chinese medicine, which is TCM as the main course and Chinese as a supplement and senior professors are selected with years of TCM teaching experience and profound TCM culture. The other category is the students majoring in Chinese, who choose Chinese medicine as an elective course by virtue of the school's characteristics of Chinese medicine, that is Chinese as the main course and TCM as a supplement. In addition, the Chinese medicine clinical practice base has been established, and students can have clinical practice in Jiangxi University of Chinese Medicine for at least half a year.
Later, when I taught at the Confucius Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine in London, I found that I could not get instant feedback from students in the classroom at the first time because of the obscure of terminology and culture of traditional Chinese medicine. Then I use Kahoot! and Socrative these two software to set up voting questions, multiple choice questions, gap filling etc., which can immediately test the learning effect of students in the classroom, and teachers can get instant feedback, thus achieving good teaching effect in Chinese medicine course.
The Application of Instant Student Feedback System in Teaching Activities Based on Web Technology
Keywords:Web technology, feedback, teaching activities
Practice of Teaching Chinese Speech with Automatic Speech Recognition
Lena Chen, Geneva School District, NY, USA
Teaching Chinese Speech, especially pronunciation and intonation, is different from writing. It is difficult for students to intuitively understand how their speech is. Automatic speech recognition (ASR) is an essential technique of human–computer interactions, which can convert human speech into computer text or images. This article introduces the practice of ASR technology to carry out Chinese speech teaching and learning study in the classroom. The study discussed the effect of using ASR for Chinese speech teaching, and the most effective way of speech learning (individual learning, pair learning, group cooperative learning) with the assistance of ASR technology. In addition, it also examines whether there is a correlation between students' phonological learning performance such as words, sentences, and dialogues.
Keywords: Chinese Speech teaching and learning, Automatic Speech Recognition, Cooperative learning
Technology in the Chinese Teaching Classroom
Chang Liu, University of Rochester, USA
Nowadays Chinese education becomes more and more popular in the states. But keeping students engaged is what we need to do. I saw a lot of students start to learn Chinese with ambitious but can easily lose their motivation when they study new character and vocabulary. In this case, we need to use different technologies to keep student interested in learning process from different perspectives. In this article, I will discuss the reason why students lose their interest about Chinese learning. Then, I will analyze different websites, applications and equipment based on different problem and concerns raised by the students and Chinese teachers. At the end of the article, I will exclaim the limitation of the article including the influence from the pandemic period.
Keywords: Technology websites equipment
A Probe into the Grammar Teaching of Complement in Chinese as a Foreign Language
Yanan Deng, Sichuan University, China
A complement is a supplementary explanatory element behind a verb or adjective. There is no complement in English grammar, which makes it difficult to teach Chinese as a foreign language to European and American students. In addition, the types of complements are very complex, and various scholars have different definitions, which makes it difficult for foreign students to learn complements. This research summarizes the relevant research on complement by modern scholars through the literature method, and analyzes and summarizes the teaching methods of complement in TCFL, so that front-line teachers can carry out complement grammar teaching.
Through the survey, this research believes that front-line teachers can follow the following teaching methods in teaching when facing difficult complements: 1. Determine the teaching order, from easy to difficult: it is recommended that the order in the HSK syllabus prevail. 2. Find the key and difficult points accurately and appropriately: directional complement and result complement are used most frequently and should be paid attention to. 3. Three paragraph complement teaching method: ① The teacher asks a question to let the students say the verb; ② The teacher asked another question, and the students said the complement; ③ Finally, the teacher connected them to form a verb complement structure. 4. Interesting teaching: interesting teaching is carried out in the explanation link and practice link. 5. Understand students' errors and carry out targeted teaching.
In general, teaching methods are the teaching suggestions given by experts and famous teachers. As a front-line teacher, we still need to systematically plan our own teaching arrangements according to different people and classes, and make customized changes on the basis of a certain order. Only in this way can we teach students in accordance with their aptitude and achieve the best results, and can we also make front-line teachers unable to understand the experts' ideas because of blindly imitating, instead of delaying teaching.
Keywords: Complement grammar; teaching
Teaching Design of Chinese History Compulsory Course for Chinese Majors in Universities in Northeast Thailand
Ludi Gu, Beijing Normal University, China
With the rapid development of international Chinese education, more and more attention has been paid to classroom teaching design. Teaching design is the core of international Chinese education and teaching, and it is the basis and foundation for teachers to carry out classroom teaching. History and culture courses and language skills courses play equally important roles in international Chinese education. This paper takes the compulsory course of Chinese history of Chinese major in Northeast universities of Thailand as an example, collects students' demand for Chinese history course by means of questionnaire survey and interview method, grasps the teaching method of history course, and enhances the closeness of "teaching" and "learning". Combined with Thai northeast university students' demands for the course of learning, this paper selects the historical story “Mulan to join the army on behalf of her father” as an example based on the immersive experience classroom model to help students master the knowledge of Chinese history and improve the students' Chinese level, combined with the teaching evaluation standards proposed by Liu Xun for evaluation and reflection.
Keywords: Chinese history course; Thailand; The teaching design
Phonetic Errors of Cambodian Chinese Learners and Metrical Poetry Teaching
Yusi Cheng, Mingqiang Li, 1. International College of Macau University of science and technology, Macau 999078; 2. Chinese Culture Center of Southeast Asian University, Cambodia, Siem Reap 999094
Chinese is a tonal language, which has a rhythm. But for non-native Chinese learners, pronunciation is the first step in their perception of Chinese, and it is also an inevitable obstacle to overcome. The official language of Cambodia is Khmer, and the mother tongue of more than 90% of the country's population is Khmer. It belongs to the Mon Khmer language family, a South Asian language family. Both the phonetic system and the writing system are significantly different from Chinese. For Cambodian Chinese learners whose mother tongue is Khmer, Chinese phonetic learning has become a challenge that needs to be overcome. Based on classroom observation and teaching, summarizes some common phonetic errors of Cambodian Chinese learners in the four aspects of initials, finals, tones, and mutations, further analyzes the close relationship between the generation of phonetic errors and textbooks, teachers and learners themselves. The application of metrical poetry in phonetic teaching can help learners perceive Chinese phonological tones and improve the accuracy of Chinese learners' pronunciation; also helps them understand Chinese historical and cultural knowledge and customs while enhancing their interest in learning.
Keywords: phonetics error; Metrical Poetry; Chinese phonetics teaching; Cambodia
A Study on the Localization of American Grammar Teaching under the Guidance of Level Standards
Yingxue Liu, Beijing Normal University, China
The Chinese Level Standards for International Chinese Language Education issued in 2021 put forward new requirements for building innovative courses for international Chinese language teaching, strengthening the construction of international Chinese language teachers and training "Chinese+" talents. As a part of the Level Standards, the Grammar Level Syllabus also provides a new standard for the localization of grammar teaching. This topic is intended to explain the “Second Language Development Model” re-proposed in the Grammar Ranking Outline through Basturkmen’s four types of relationships: “effective input”, “effective output”, “input with output” and “output with input”, in combination with the design example of the summer Chinese class meeting at Tufts University in the United States. It also makes statistics and analysis on the data of grammar point coverage, grade distribution, category distribution, etc. and presentation methods of the New Practical Chinese Textbook, with a view to providing empirical evidence for the localization strategy of Chinese classroom grammar teaching in the United States and the development and research of the American local distance hybrid teaching model, so as to provide reference for the docking application of international Chinese textbooks and the Level Standards.
Keywords: Level Standards, Second Language Development Model, New Practical Chinese Textbook, grammar teaching, localization
Research on the Situational Teaching of Ancient Chinese Poetry as a Second Language
Miaowei, Beijing Normal University
As a carrier of traditional Chinese culture, ancient poetry is an important element in teaching Chinese as a foreign language. How can teaching sessions be designed around the learning materials of ancient Chinese poetry to meet the cognitive characteristics of second language learners? What methods can be adopted in the teaching sessions to enable second language learners to acquire cultural knowledge better? In this study, a situation approach to teaching Chinese poetry is proposed. On the one hand, creating appropriate situation in teaching is conducive to facilitating the internalization of knowledge by second language learners and in line with their cognitive characteristics; on the other hand, the situation approach is simple and easy to implement, and therefore is teacher-friendly. In this study, three problems in the practice of teaching ancient poetry in situation are analysed: 1. singular and patterned teaching methods; 2. formal and superficial teaching content; 3. over-reliance on information technology. In this study, four teaching strategies are proposed to address the current problems: 1. using the role substitution method to create a scene of performance; 2. creating a musical situation according to the emotional characteristics of ancient poems; 3. creating a life situation according to the content characteristics of ancient poems; 4. using multimedia to concretize abstract concepts.
Keywords: situational teaching, ancient Chinese poetry, second language teaching method
Flipped Classroom Used in Teaching & Learning Chinese Mandarin Pinyin
Shuping Song, Lewiston-porter School District, Buffalo, USA
The flipped classroom as a key component of blended learning arouses great interest among researchers and educators nowadays. The technology of flipped classroom implies such organization of the educational process in which classroom activities and homework assignments are reversed. The research explores its potential for both teachers and students. The authors present the results obtained from the experience of the flipped classroom implementation in the language classroom. This article used a mixed-method, 42 students participated the research, all students followed the same course plan; 22 students used flipped classroom to learn Pinyin, whereas 20 students used the traditional way to learn Pinyin. For all students, the pre- and post tests are the same, but the students who used flipped classroom needed to take extra a survey and a interview. This research used the flipped classroom throughout a four-week to test whether students were able to: (1) teach and study Pinyin on their own and enhance the correctness of their pronunciation; (2) gain more confidence when learning Mandarin; and (3) enjoy learning Mandarin in this method. Both qualitative and quantitative data was collected from the research to demonstrate that the flipped classroom in Chinese learning was the applicable. The authors provide the findings from their experience implementing a flipped classroom in a language course. The study demonstrates that the flipped classroom model uses technology to intentionally shift instruction to a learner-centered model and to organize the educational process in such a way that classroom activities and homework assignments are reversed. It also enables students to receive assistance from teachers or other students in putting new knowledge into practice. Additionally, with flipped classrooms, in-class activities are reimagined, student engagement in learning is increased, and teacher interactions with students can be more customized and less didactic. The research also demonstrates that the flipped learning can give students resources, increase motivation, make learning more fun, and boost engagement and grades. (314)
Keywords: blended learning, classroom activities, flipped classroom technology.
Pedagogical Practice of Integrating Culture and Language Learning in Chinese Context
Cheng Peng, University of London, SOAS, UK
The general educational aims of language teaching defined by Byram (1997: 61) as ‘the understanding of otherness and of self, and the acquisition or development of positive attitudes towards speakers of other languages’. Communication is not, however, just a question of grammar and vocabulary, it is also a question of culture. Every message a human being communicates through language is communicated in a cultural context (Liddicoat, A. J., 2008). As for teaching Chinese in a multicultural context, teachers often encounter difficulties related to the explanation of certain words or phrases containing specific Chinese cultural expressions or symbols which is required amount of time to elaborate, but sometimes the learning outcomes after the elaboration process seems to be not very productive or promising at different teaching stages. When reflecting on the cultural aspects in language teaching process, the solution is the earlier to integrate culture naturally with the language learning progress the better, because ‘what we can do in the classroom is to help learners develop ways of finding out more about the culture they are learning by analyzing their experiences and developing their awareness (Liddicoat, A. J., 2008).’ However, how to insert Chinese cultural concepts without interrupting other cultures, how to start with teachers’ and learners’ experiences and expectations instead of starting teaching practice from a cultural vacuum, and how to consider learning materials as encapsulations of culture expressed through a given language system and design appropriate activities from even very basic levels...those questions still remain as primary concerns to many language teachers. In this paper, the cultural awareness will be used as a key term and the culture-integrated approach to language teaching (Fennes and Hapgood ,1997: 60–62; Dlaska, A., 2000) will be used as a theoretical framework to look into (1) the learner’s understanding of self-perception, (2) the influence of cultural values on behavior, (3) the consciousness of stereotypes and prejudices, and (4) the willingness to deal with culture-based conflict in college-level courses and high school language/humanities programmes. The data collected will be mainly focused on learners’ short-term performance (4 months, 1 semester) and student-teacher oral communication in the classroom, as well as students’ writing tasks after the regular classes. The preliminary findings of this research programme encourages educators to pay closer attention to cultural aspects when planning lessons: by associating their identities with specific preassigned cultural awareness, students develop self-assurance and questioning skills when facing unexpected cultural conflicts, as well as gradually decoding explicit or even some implicit information encoded in the target language.
Keywords: Cultural context, learning activities, language learning
On the Role of Immersion Teaching Method in Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language
Hai-ge Yan, College of Arts, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou, Gansu, China
Immersive teaching method refers to shaping the target language environment and conducting second language teaching in the target language environment. In the context of the global "Chinese fever", the traditional teaching method of Chinese as a foreign language obviously cannot meet the needs of Chinese teaching. As a new second language teaching method, the immersion teaching method has unique advantages that the traditional teaching method does not have. Of course, there will also be problems that cannot be ignored. This paper intends to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the immersion teaching method in teaching Chinese as a foreign language, so as to achieve the effect of learning from each other.
Keywords: immersion teaching method, teaching Chinese as a foreign language, advantages and disadvantages
A Practical Study on the Application of Chinese Character Aesthetics to Literacy Teaching
Mengyuan Zhao, Fangcaodi International School, Beijing, China
This paper is based on an examination of the current situation of literacy teaching in international elementary school, a reflection on the traditional literacy teaching classroom model, an analysis of the current situation of literacy teaching with emphasis on the aesthetics of Chinese characters, a discussion of the relationship between the aesthetics of Chinese characters and literacy teaching, and a new and improved practice of the traditional literacy teaching model based on this theory with practical examples. The study also uses practical examples to explain the effects of the new literacy teaching approach in an attempt to promote the development of literacy teaching with aesthetic education, enhance students’ interest in literacy, strengthen their literacy skills, and guide them to improve their aesthetic level and cultural heritage in literacy.
Keywords: Examination, literacy teaching, aesthetic
Research on Teaching Chinese Vocabulary as a Foreign Language Based on Embodied Cognition Theory
Hongyan Ma, Northeast Normal University, China
In recent years, the theory of embodied cognition has been widely concerned, from the natural sciences to the social humanities have had a great impact, and gradually become a research hot spot in language teaching. This paper is based on the theory of embodied cognition of Chinese vocabulary teaching as a foreign language, by classroom observation to raise two questions: first, whether the teaching of second language vocabulary based on embodied cognition is affected by the part of speech; Second, what are the biggest factors affecting the choice of vocabulary teaching methods? In the study of teaching Chinese vocabulary as a foreign language,the step one, the influence degree of embodied teaching in different parts of speech is analyzed. The second step, the selection of teaching methods by different parts of speech and different age stages is discussed. Finally, it is concluded that "the second language vocabulary teaching based on embodied cognition theory is affected by the part of speech, and the biggest factors that affect the choice of vocabulary teaching methods are the part of speech and age", and provides methods and suggestions for future Chinese vocabulary teaching.
Keywords: Different vocabulary, different age, vocabulary teaching, embodied cognitive theory
A Study on Chinese Immersive Teaching in Different Age Groups
Zoe Huang, Southwest University of Science and Technology, China
Since the immersive teaching model was introduced into the second language teaching, it has been favored by foreign language teaching and Chinese teaching. This study is based on the fact that age difference is one of the important factors that affect second language acquisition. Taking the author's practice abroad for half a year as an example, this paper studies and reflects on the practice of Chinese immersive teaching in kindergartens and primary and secondary schools. By analyzing the teaching performance of students of different ages in the Chinese immersive class and whether the teaching objectives have been achieved, it is found that the effects of Chinese immersion teaching vary greatly among different ages. It also puts forward the educational concept of student centered in Chinese immersive teaching, and designs teaching activities according to the different learning characteristics of students of different ages and the rules of teaching Chinese as a foreign language.
Keywords: Immersion; Different age Groups of students; case analysis
Multi-Dimension Analysis on TCSL Oral Teaching in Application of the OMO Mixed Mode
Ning Ma, Henan Polytechnic University, China
Various of teaching modes have emerged in quantity due to the development and combination of multimedia, cloud computing, advanced 5G wireless communication technologies and modern teaching theories. Teaching Chinese as a second language (TCSL) are still proliferating fast in spite of several dynamic and uncertain factors such as public health emergencies, a country’s policy adjustments, international situations, etc. Experts and scholars have always focused on researching learners’ oral Chinese ability in that the fundamental purpose of language learning is to communicate effectually. Three main modes of oral teaching can be refined about TCSL. They are traditional offline classroom teaching, pure online oral teaching and online merging offline (OMO) oral teaching. In post-COVID-19 period, the OMO mixed mode burst into a very strong vitality. It has a strong application prospect in the following period of time. This paper discusses TCSL oral teaching in application of the OMO mixed mode from multi-dimension perspectives. First and foremost, this paper states the concept, origin and development of the OMO mixed mode and its three major benefits in TCSL oral teaching: supporting diversified learning styles; complementing online and offline merits; establishing multiple evaluation methods.Then the paper discusses four predominant application strategies of the OMO mixed mode in TCSL oral teaching respectively. Teachers skillfully use the internet platforms to assist students’ preview. Interactions and cooperation should be emphasized during the application of the OMO mixed mode. Varieties of web resources can be flexibly and effectively utilized as well as the breadth of oral language materials should be broaden. Finally, the paper also points out some problems that need noticing in order to improve the application effect of the OMO mixed mode.
Keywords: TCSL oral teaching, the OMO mixed mode, benefits and application strategies, multi-dimension anal
Teaching Resources and Ideas in Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month
Wenjing Huang, George School, Newtown PA, USA
Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) Heritage Month is a tradition in May every year in the U.S. to pay tribute to the generations of Asian and Pacific Islanders who have enriched America’s history. During this whole month, which is normally the end of the school year period in most K12 schools in the US, how can Chinese teachers engage students through different activities to increase students’ awareness of Asian and Asian American culture? In this presentation, participants will be shared with AAPI resources such as websites and books that can be integrated into their teaching in Chinese immersion programs, as well as one lesson activity example to develop students’ reading skill of AAPI children's books.
Keywords: AAPI Heritage Month, activities, resources
Integrating Culture with Language Teaching
Leyi Zhong, Geneva School District, NY, US
The relationship between language and culture is a very close one. Language is the carrier of culture. No language exists independently of a culture. The teaching of a language is inseparable from teaching about a culture. Teaching Chinese as a foreign language is more than teaching the language as an ontology; the language teaching also needs to be integrated into a corresponding ontology of culture throughout the process of teaching Chinese as a foreign language. When I taught colors, I integrated two cultural projects in my lesson ‒ a Beijing Opera project and an ink-blowing painting project.
Beijing Opera project
In Beijing Opera, the different colors of the masks represent different characters and personalities. A red facial mask represents a loyal and heroic character. Red facial masks mainly represent positive characters. Black represents uprightness, honesty and selflessness. Blue represents a firm/unyielding and brave character. The students colored a facial mask and gave an introduction of their facial mask in Chinese. Through this introduction, the students mastered the colors and the words to describe people’s personalities in Mandarin.
Ink-blowing painting project
With the ink-blowing painting, we all used Chinese when introducing the materials and the way to use them. For blending the materials we needed for the project and instruction sentences, I had made up a short Chinese poem. Combined with the video, the students could understand and recite that poetic instruction passage easily. After finishing the project the students had not only experienced Chinese ink painting, but had also mastered all those words for colors, material, direction and verbs that featured in the project.
The students had fun during the projects and were immersed in Mandarin while engaged in it. They used Mandarin automatically when asking me for the materials needed for the project. Integrating culture into language teaching not only enriches the teaching content, but also engages the interest of foreign students learning Chinese and helps them to understand and grasp Chinese culture, so as to better understand and use Chinese and to improve their cross-cultural communication skills.
Keywords: Culture, ontology, Beijing Opera, Ink-blowing
Immersive Cultural Teaching in An Interactive Reading Game Model
Fang Nan, Northwest Normal University, China
Online Chinese language teaching has become the new norm in the wake of the Covid-19. Immersive cultural teaching needs to be combined with close integration with new technologies. Using Central Asian students who were unable to come to China due to the epidemic as teaching targets, the author combines interactive reading games with cultural teaching through comprehensible multimodal input, guided by contextual cognitive learning theory and socio-cultural theory, and using the adventures of Chinese Silk Road culture as a backdrop for immersive and interactive cultural teaching. This article uses the self-paced text 'Journey to Lanzhou' as an example to illustrate the steps of interactive cultural immersion teaching: preparation before the lesson, teacher and students working together, summarizing and practicing, and students sharing their insights. Students immerse themselves in the characters in the game in the form of personal representations, interacting with them through text-based character dialogues and multiple-choice questions that determine the direction of the play and drive the plot forward. The interactive reading game model of cultural immersion not only allows Chinese learners to perceive the long history and contemporary vitality of western China through an immersive and interactive approach but also turns flat, monolithic cultural knowledge into fun and stimulates learners' enjoyment and curiosity for continuous exploration, thus bringing learners closer to Chinese culture and facilitating their Chinese language learning.
Keywords: Interactive reading games, Immersion, International Chinese language education
Innovative Design and Application of Micro-Classes Resources in International Dragon Dance Curriculum
Jiamin Chai, Jinzhu Zeng, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China
Under the background that information technology is increasingly being used in education, micro-classes provide a new path for Chinese learners to learn and master Chinese better and faster, and have great research value. As a representative of traditional Chinese culture, the dragon dance has not yet emerged as a systematic teaching resource in international Chinese education. At the same time, as a traditional sports, it is directly related to the construction of China's soft power and the promotion of sports international discourse power. This paper takes the innovative design of dragon dance courses with micro-course resources as the breakthrough point, and creates a new intelligent teaching method for international dragon dance courses through curriculum design and application. This paper firstly introduces the background and significance of this research, the related research status and the theoretical basis of the research. On this basis, through in-depth analysis of the opening form, course objectives, content, evaluation, reflection, etc. of the dragon dance course, and through the evaluation of students' satisfaction with the course, a dragon dance course with modernity and integrity will designed. The application of micro-classes for digital resource construction of dragon dance can not only facilitate the learning of learners, but also greatly enrich the curriculum construction of traditional dragon dance, making new technology a powerful assistant for the curriculum, and helping the overseas Chinese tradition High-quality dissemination of culture.
Keywords: micro-classes design and application; international dragon dance course; learning resources
The Application of Virtual Reality Technology in Immersive Chinese Culture Teaching
Wen Cui, Beijing Normal University, China
As we all know, "virtual reality" has become one of the emerging technologies in the 21st century. As a new teaching media technology, virtual reality has obvious advantages in sensory simulation, scene construction and human-computer interaction. Virtual reality technology can enable students to experience learning through three-dimensional virtual environment, which greatly enriches the situational teaching means of Chinese culture teaching, and helps learners to wander, explore and learn in the created virtual reality environment, and immerse themselves in the virtual target language environment. This teaching model creates a realistic language learning environment for Chinese learners who do not have the target language environment, and learners can truly experience the life and cultural environment of China. This atmosphere makes them more active and more focused on practical rather than just theoretical learning. This paper takes tea culture teaching as an example to explore the application of VR technology in immersive Chinese culture teaching, so as to provide a reference for the integration of VR technology into Chinese teaching.
Keywords: Virtual Reality Technology; Immersive Chinese Culture Teaching; Chinese International Education
Reflections on How to Combine Cultural Teaching with Cultural Communication in Teaching Chinese as A Foreign Language under the New Situation
Amy Zheng, Instant Chinese, China
Under the new situation, on the one hand, the spread of Chinese culture in Chinese language teaching is affected by external factors such as the international ideology and the deepening development of economic globalization; On the other hand, it is affected by internal factors such as limited cognition of culture teaching, lack of systematic culture syllabus, and teachers' cross-cultural awareness to be improved, which make its implementation more challenging and difficult. In view of this situation, this paper focuses on two coping strategies - breaking the cognitive limitations of culture teaching and strengthening the systematicness of culture teaching syllabus, in order to combine culture teaching and culture communication in Chinese teaching, so as to achieve the optimization and innovation of Chinese culture communication.
Keywords: Chinese teaching culture teaching culture communication culture syllabus
Application of Total Physical Response in Online One-to-one Chinese Vocabulary Instruction to Children
Lanfang Sun, The University of Hong Kong, China
This study employed action research to examine the effectiveness of Total Physical Response (TPR) in online one-to-one Chinese as a Second Language (CSL) lessons for children. In each round of action research, problems were identified, and a plan of action was proposed, a series of data, such as the quiz, unit test, parent comments, and evaluation of teaching behavior, will be collected and analyzed, and conclusions were formed after rounds of action research, to modify the theory. The research found that TPR was beneficial for cultivating students’ listening comprehension, while it has both positive and negative effects on students’ speaking. Plus, the most ideal way of teaching in TPR is performing, and it has positive effects on students’ learning. And TPR can greatly help narrow the distance between teachers and students in an online learning context, therefore helping reduce students’ anxiety effectively.
Keywords: TPR, Online Chinese instruction, Chinese vocabulary instruction to children, One-to-one, Application research
A Study on Online Learning Enjoyment of Chinese Language Learners
Shuai Wang, Mingzhu Yuan, College of Chinese Language and Culture, Nankai University, China
The outbreak of COVID-19 has had a significant and far-reaching impact on international Chinese education. Undoubtedly, the most important impact is the change of teaching patterns. Online Chinese language teaching has achieved unprecedented development. In recent years, emotional factors have attracted much attention in the field of second language teaching and research. Existing studies mainly focus on learners in traditional classroom teaching, but with the change of teaching patterns, learners' enjoyment will change accordingly. This paper studies the emotion of Chinese language learners' online learning enjoyment, divides the learning enjoyment into three dimensions: learning process, learning environment and learning achievement, and constructs an evaluation system and scale. With 111 Japanese online Chinese learners as subjects, this paper investigated the current situation of learners' enjoyment, the influencing factors of enjoyment, the relationship between enjoyment and anxiety, and the relationship between enjoyment and language achievement through quantitative research. The results show that: (1) Japanese Chinese language learners' online learning enjoyment level is generally high, but the enjoyment level of learning process dimension is relatively lower than that of other dimensions. (2) Gender factors will significantly affect the enjoyment level of online learning, while Chinese language level has no significant effect. (3) There was a negative correlation between enjoyment and anxiety. (4) Enjoyment has a small to medium positive predictive effect on Chinese language test scores. On the basis of the research results, this paper puts forward suggestions to improve the online learning enjoyment of Chinese learners, such as giving students appropriate autonomy and improving the value evaluation of learners on teaching content.
Keywords: Chinese language learners, Learning enjoyment, Online learning
Study on Application of Task-based Teaching Method in Teaching Chinese Writing Course Online
Suoru Zhang, China university of Geosciences (Wuhan), China
This thesis is to explore the application, the challenges and the dealing strategies of task-based teaching method in online courses based on Teaching Chinese Writing Course as a Foreign Language. Affected by the pandemic, teaching international students is facing new challenges. In order to find out the advantages and disadvantages of task-based teaching Chinese writing in online courses, the paper proposes the following questions: (1) How to improve the teaching and learning efficiency online? (2) Which problems and challenges does teaching face?
In order to answer the research questions above, this study adopted the teaching case of writing exercise of “Ba-construction”. The writing task is designed as “introduce how to cook a dish”, in the passage should use the “Ba-construction”. According to teaching practice online, the teaching model of Chinese writing is “living practice combines with language learning”. It is practical and effective to create the real Chinese context and help students improve Chinese writing ability.
The paper discusses the specific situation of Chinese writing course online in application of task-based teaching method from three aspects: the teacher's leading role, students' performance and feedback, and the impact of the teaching environment. It is found that compared with traditional teaching methods, the application of task-based teaching methods in online writing courses has an obvious promotion effect on learners' enthusiasm and coherence. However, online teaching is also affected by task design and network environment, and there still exist some problems, such as paralanguage reduction, less teacher-student interaction and network delays. The task design in online teaching is particularly important.
This paper from teaching practice, under the guidance of theoretical foundations in order to sort out the problems that arise, and offer corresponding suggestions for teaching Chinese writing from three aspects, which might provide some reference for teaching Chinese writing as a foreign language online.
Keywords: Task-based Teaching Method, Teaching Chinese as a foreign language, Chinese Writing, Online Teaching
A New Online Immersive Chinese Teaching Mode Based on Flipped Classroom
Veronica Wu, Northwest Normal University, China
Online teaching transcends the limitation of time and space and plays a more and more important role in modern Chinese teaching, while the role of online immersive education is of the most significance.
Immersive learning is an experiential method, in which learners first participate in activities, and then apply the knowledge learned from activities to life and work. In the process of teaching Chinese as a second language online, teachers use audio-visual media in teaching to encourage students' willingness to active learning. During this process, learners could take the initiative to acquire language knowledge and Chinese culture, and reach the ultimate goal of flow state, namely immersive learning of the whole body and mind.
Based on flipped classroom, a new Online "immersive" Chinese classroom teaching mode mainly includes the process of pre-class, during class and after class. Pre-class: students need to learn new words in text and grammar in online micro-class. Before class, teachers should record online courses with multimodal input for learners in advance, such as audio, visual, oral mode and so on. The time is about 8-10 minutes. Like the domestic postgraduate Chinese micro lesson contest, students can preview the text through animation, video and practice activities. The course is lively and interesting. During class: Teachers answer the question which the students posed, and create interactive competitive games based on course content. For example, use websites such as Quizlet, Gather, and Kahoot to design games to consolidate knowledge about the new words and grammar. After students observe and learn the online micro-class, they put forward questions which are corresponding to the text in class, and the teacher explains them. The interactive competitive game is used for training. The teachers can judge the students' mastery of the knowledge by the game. And then according to their response, they can reward students to do less homework, or punish them to do more homework. After class: Students will have a further immersive experience based on role-playing text games or 3D virtual simulation games. Interactive text-based games can help learners to have a deeper understanding of the grammar and content of the text. After class, students can gain experience by entering 3D virtual simulation games. It is worthy of further study and promotion.
Keywords: Internet +, flipped classroom, immersive teaching, micro-class. interactive games
Implementing Communicative Approaches in Chinese Language Teaching Online:
The Case of the Oberlin-BNU Language Tutoring
Gen Zhou, Beijing Normal University, China
With the global outbreak of the COVID-19 Pandemic, online education is rapidly becoming a significant form of education as an emergency alternative, gradually parallellin, offline teaching. The communicative approach, as a unique teaching method, can help students develop their communicative and problem-solving skills through effective forms of verbal communication, engaging students' attention in an immersive language atmosphere, and mobilizing, their communication skills for rapid comprehension and feedback, resulting in better results in teaching Chinese. The communicative approach is combined with online Chinese language teaching in this paper. The author investigates the principles of implementing the communicative approach to teaching Chinese as a foreign language in an online teaching mode, taking the Oberlin-BNU Chinese Language Tutoring program as an example: selecting appropriate language materials and communicative topics for lesson preparation, communicative classroom processes, and learner-centered classrooms.Furthermore, the author conducted typical communicative method teaching practices such as daily conversation, topic presentation, topic discussion, short speech, situational communication, and role exchange to investigate the communicative method's strengths and feasibility in teaching Chinese as a foreign language, as well as to provide some suggestions for its weaknesses: Chinese language teachers should select appropriate communicative content and teach students at different levels based on their abilities, as well as incorporate other teaching methods into the teaching process.
Keywords: Communicative Approaches; Chinese Language Teaching; Online Teaching Mode
How Online Teaching Creates a Language Environment
Shiqi Wang, Beijing Normal University, China
Online teaching is the safest and effective teaching method in the context of the epidemic. However, there is a spatial distance between teachers and students, and online teaching also has drawbacks such as difficulty in classroom management, lack of timely communication between teachers and students, and difficulty in shaping classroom environment. It is necessary to achieve "immersion" teaching, the paper puts forward that the effective ways to realize it are to fully interact between teachers and students, mobilize students' various senses and increase the proportion of group learning. In addition, teachers should also continue to explore, visual debugging, dual class interaction and "cloud travel" to create an environment, "immersive teaching" into the classroom, so as to make up for the lack of online teaching, so that students can learn better.
Keywords: Online teaching, immersion, interaction
Teaching Chinese as Foreign Language in Malaysia
Naomi Tan, HanGlobalEdu, Malaysia
The International Application of Chinese Language-Development in Southeast Asia Chinese language has driven the common language of the Chinese nation around the world. The Chinese (Malaysian) population in Malaysia has the highest proportion in overseas countries except Singapore but the phenomenon of language mixing in Malaysia is extremely common, which constitutes a unique language landscape in Malaysia. Although my country's education is second to none in Southeast Asia and even in the world, maintaining the ability and improvement of Chinese speaking Chinese is out of reach. Chinese has become one of the main languages of new media in Malaysia.
There are only a minority of Chinese who can speak fluently in our country. This is because most Chinese have to train themselves to be able to speak 3 to 5 languages at the same time, even dialects to deal with people of various ethnic groups. Standard Chinese language is only used in special circumstances such as: when students from Chinese schools get together, in Chinese speaking occasions, when people from Chinese newspapers giving talk or interview . When people from Chinese TV and radio stations make presentations etc. The optimism is that in recent years, many groups in our country have launched the Chinese-speaking movement, which has influenced Chinese and other ethnic groups with English-speaking backgrounds to respond enthusiastically. Therefore, the way of speaking of the "rojak" -mixed fruits culture is more common.
Promoting the meaning of speaking Mandarin is more urgent, cautious and expected.
In addition, Chinese online tools are also widely spread, allowing many people to find various effective methods on how to speak Chinese fluently in a convenient and easy way. All in all, being able to speak Mandarin is cordial and convenient. If you communicate with other ethnic groups in Chinese, it is to help them practice speaking Mandarin and let them seek better life opportunities. Finally, I think that speaking more Mandarin is not to deny the power of other languages, but to respect the usage value and cultural customs of dialects, and to seek common ground in differences is the general direction of the international community. I am glad that I have the advantage of being able to speak multiple languages, and I hope that Malaysians of all ethnic groups will lead the uprising of Southeast Asian countries to be able to speak Mandarin.
Keywords: Chinese language, Southeast Asia, speaking mandarin, online tools
How to do Apply Situational Teaching to Teach Chinese as a Foreign Language
Jie Cao, Sanya Huandao Experimental Primary School, China
Since the reform and opening up, the cultures of various countries in the world have gradually merged, and teaching Chinese as a new discipline has received more and more attention. In the teaching of Chinese as a foreign language, the use of situation teaching methods can effectively enliven the learning atmosphere of the classroom and cultivate students’ language expression ability and communication ability. This paper makes a superficial analysis of situational teaching in teaching Chinese as a foreign language, and believes that situational teaching has important significance for teaching Chinese as a foreign language.
Keywords: Teaching Chinese as a foreign language, situational teaching, analysis
The Teaching Practice of Output Oriented Method in the Standard Course Take Saudi Online Project Students as An Example
Yuan Li, Northwest Normal University, China
The output oriented approach (POA) was studied and proposed by Professor Wen Qiufang, a Chinese scholar, and his team. It aims to overcome the "separation between learning and using" phenomenon in second language teaching and improve teaching efficiency. How to enable Chinese learners to directly and effectively transform language after each lesson has been the focus of discussion. Many Chinese learners say that the words, texts and languages learned in the classroom cannot be used directly after class, and there is a huge gap between input and output. In order to try to solve the problem of separation of learning from using in actual teaching, and at the same time to investigate whether the output oriented approach is applicable to online teaching of Chinese as a foreign language, which is popular due to the epidemic, I am adapted the lesson six (four lessons in total) in the book of HSK 2, and carried out online teaching practice. This teaching practice mainly answers the following two questions: First, how to adapt the teaching materials according to the POA concept? Second, does the output oriented approach have a positive impact on online teaching of Chinese as a foreign language.
Keywords: Output oriented approach, learning and using, online teaching
Investigating Contextualized Translation Method on Preliminary-Level Learners of L2 Chinese: A Case Study
Junming Chen1, Han Du2, Yuxin Yao3, Yongxin Feng4, Xiamen University of Technology, China, 1. Email, 2. Email
This study is an ongoing case study on the effects of the contextualized Translation Method on Chinese-as-a-second-language (CSL) learners at the preliminary level. While the traditional Translation Method had been popular in SLA in its earlier state, with the application worldwide in different languages, it has been under criticism since its birth, bearing the name of the Grammar Translation Method. The grammar origin might, in one way or another, direct and limit the scopes and perspectives of research and studies on the Translation Method, and little attention has been paid to investigating the Translation Method with materials in context, and this in spite of the fact that translation in context might serve as some immersion experience in two languages. Therefore, this study seeks to observe and explore how the contextualized Translation Method impacts preliminary-level CSL learners' development of the Chinese language.
The participant is a 15-year-old Irish secondary school girl in grade four in her gap year in China. His language proficiency was around HSK1 by the time she arrived in China. In-house materials are developed following the principles of learning in context, and context here refers to the situations under the participant's cognitive experience and cognitive knowledge. The learner's development in the Chinese language is evaluated by overall tests, recorded videos and class observation throughout the learning process. :
Results show that the contextualized Translation Method has positive effects on Chinese development with the participant in terms of vocabulary learning, listening, and comprehension ability, but no improvement in writing Chinese characters. Such findings provide evidence for the contextualized Translation Method's beneficial effect on preliminary CSL learners' Chinese acquisition. The participant also shows improved familiarity and response with the Chinese language in context, suggesting the potential function of context learning for second language learning. Furthermore, observation has identified cases of a learner taking advantage of her cognitive experience or knowledge to learn the Chinese language, indicating a potential direction for future study.
Keywords: CSL, preliminary-level learner, the contextualized Translation Method
Proficiency Oriented Classroom Activities
Yunliang Bao, Foothills Elementary, Jordan School District, US
Proficiency is the goal for all language learning. When planning different stages of learning, if teachers would be very intentional about developing students’ proficiency, it would benefit students in the long run. This Presentation introduces a few classroom learning activities that aim at improving students' proficiency in a 3rd grade Chinese Dual Immersion classroom. Students normally start 3rd grade at a Novice Mid or Novice High, and the instructional goal is to bring students to a solid Novice High and push them further to Intermediate Low. The instructional strategies in this presentation will focus on students’ text type development while integrating context, function and accuracy.
Keywords: Proficiency, learning activities, dual immersion
Teaching Strategies for Thinking Development in Teaching Chinese as A Second Language
Miao Wei, Fangcaodi International School, China
How to make learners' Chinese improve continuously and thus develop their Chinese language pragmatic skills is an important research topic in teaching Chinese as a foreign language. The mechanical, substitution, extension and communicative exercises commonly used in Chinese as a foreign language can cause students' thinking and logical habits to also be affected by the negative transfer of their native language. This paper takes the teaching of Chinese to children in the International Department of Fangcaodi International School as an example, and discusses what teaching strategies are adopted in teaching Chinese to foreign students in elementary school based on the language textbook of the third grade of the Ministry of Education version to develop learners' thinking skills, improve the efficiency of classroom teaching, prompt children learners to get used to and establish Chinese thinking patterns, and improve their Chinese language pragmatic skills.
Keywords: Teaching Strategies; Thinking development; Teaching Chinese as a Second Language
Multimodal Interaction Types of IRF Sequences in Chinese as Second Language Classrooms
Michelle Wang, Central China Normal University, China
Initiation-Response-Feedback (henceforth IRF) sequence is a typical teacher-student interaction mode in classroom. Previous studies have mainly focused on the language form of IRF sequence, researchers rarely analyze it from the perspective of multimodal interaction. This study adopts the research method of multimodal interaction, firstly transcribes 20 hours of classroom teaching videos, and then captured the related multimodal information (mainly focusing on the teacher’s non-verbal behavior of gesture). The study found that: 1) the I and F turns initiated by teachers in the classroom include three interactive units: language unit, body movement unit, and multimodal unit composed of language and body movement; 2) the younger the learner, the higher frequency of using multimodal units; 3) the frequency of multimodal interaction used by teachers in oral classrooms is significantly higher than that of other classes; 4) the frequency of multimodal interaction used by expert teachers are higher compared with novice teachers. In order to achieve more effective teacher-student interaction and improve teaching quality, this study puts forward the following suggestions for novice teachers through the multi-modal interaction investigation of IRF sequences: 1) to increase the using of multi-modal interactions in I and R turns. ; the younger the learner is, the more frequent use of multimodal interaction should be implemented; 3) the interaction between teachers and students in speaking classes requires more body movement than other classes.
Keywords: IRF sequence; multidodal interaction; teacher-student interaction; body movements; interactional linguistics
Alfred University 阿尔弗莱德大学
China University of Geosciences 中国地质大学 (武汉）
Confucius Institute at Alfred University 阿尔弗莱德大学孔子学院
Conference Committee 组委会
Academic Chair 学术主席: Wenyin Zhou 周文英
Co-Chair 会议联合主席: Zhongbei (Daisy) Wu 吴中蓓 Jijun Yu喻继军
Academic Member 学术委员: Huiyang Li李惠阳 Jijun Yu喻继军
Information Technology Services of Alfred University 阿尔弗莱德大学信息技术中心
College of Liberal Arts & Sciences of Alfred University 阿尔弗莱德大学文理学院