Chinese Immersion Programs in France and the United States: A Comparative Study
––Take immersion programs as examples from Paris and Utah
Shuting Zhu, Neoma Business School，France
Immersive language instruction has gained popularity around the world as a method of teaching languages, and Chinese immersion programs developed its own characteristics in a variety of countries, facing various challenges at the same time. As a leader in Chinese education in Europe, France started an international Chinese class program as early as 2008. The Chinese and French governments cooperated to recruit Chinese teachers from China to the French host schools to teach Chinese and math. During the same year, Utah passed legislation establishing a Chinese immersion program, later becoming a leader in the field. The article compares the characteristics of immersive Chinese programs in France and the United States based on the theory of language socialization. The project involves exploring the Chinese teaching history and syllabus of the Utah Chinese immersion program and French international Chinese classes program, as well as conducting semi–structured interviews with immersion Chinese programs teachers in the two regions. Across the two territories, Chinese immersion education is deeply influenced by social conditions and ideologies. Some of the key observations / conclusions include the following. First, non–Chinese students primarily apply for immersion Chinese programs in American schools; French immersion Chinese programs present the phenomenon of "Chinese teaching Chinese". Second, in terms of teaching content, French immersion program is more focused on the literary, artistic, and philosophical aspects of the language; American immersion program is more concerned with language as a communicative medium. Meanwhile, France and the United States both emphasize the teaching of mathematics in Chinese programs. Nevertheless, France focuses on traditional Chinese culture and its application in mathematics, and the United States emphasizes training and the application of mathematical thinking. Third, regarding teaching methods, there are significant differences, both in variety within the composition of language teachers, and in their degree of collaboration. In conclusion, this study investigates some conflicts in both programs, encourages and promotes the interactions, exchanges and learning processes between French and American Chinese immersion education, stimulating them to combine and develop their strengths together.
Keywords: France, the United States, Chinese immersion programs, language socialization theory, similarities and differences
New York State Chinese Immersion teaching model––––––Second Grade in Northstreet Elementary School in Geneva
Xiaochao (Natasha) Tao, Northstar Christian Academy, NY, US
Immersion teaching, which originated in the 1960s, is considered to be the most effective language teaching model. In recent years, more and more elementary schools in the United States have begun to offer Chinese immersion programs. Based on the field teaching practice in a public Chinese immersion primary school in New York state, this paper puts forward its own thoughts and suggestions on Chinese immersion teaching in American primary schools from the aspects of teaching subjects, teaching resources and classroom management. This paper analyzes the current situation of the Chinese immersion teaching model in the United States, and through the teaching experience, expounds the characteristics of the Chinese immersion teaching model, including the Chinese input environment and the difficulty of synchronizing the teaching content with the English mother tongue. This paper analyzes the interactive modes of teachers and students in American immersion classroom teaching, studies the interactive modes of teachers and students and classes, presents the characteristics of the interactive modes of teachers and students in immersion teaching, and summarizes the basic ideas and basic components of immersion teaching in primary schools. In the language immersion program, children spend at least half of the school day in Chinese exclusively for regular school classes such as morning assembly (including greeting, sharing, activity, reading), math, science and social studies.
Five days of summer Chinese summer camp also developed from kindergarten grade 6 children of different ages: the experience of learning Chinese course also USES the immersion teaching method, the China story as the main line, cultural experience as assistant, combined with Chinese children's songs, paper cutting, calligraphy, ink, paper folding, games, etc., combine the classroom teaching activities.
Keywords: American elementary school, Chinese immersion teaching, teaching model, interaction model
Research Overview on Immersion Chinese Education in American Primary and Secondary Schools
Shuaiqi Liu/Ruoxi Zhou, Tsinghua International School Daoxiang Lake Campus, Beijing, China
The research on immersion Chinese education in the United States can be divided into two categories: the research done in China and the research done in the United States. The research done in China is characterized by "three more and three less", that is, "more theoretical discussion, less empirical research; more single school's introduction, less systematic research; more text analysis, less data collection". From the perspective of research level, the mid–macro research is gradually emerging, and the empirical characteristics of micro–research are outstanding. Graduate students' thesis of Teaching Chinese as a Second Language has statistical value. The local research in the United States tends to micro empirical research, while the research in the middle and macro needs to be improved. Future research should focus on horizontal and vertical comparison to explore the root causes of state Chinese language immersion programs. Attach importance to project management and explore the operation mode of high–quality projects; Attach importance to teacher training and summarize the required abilities of immersion Chinese teachers.
Keywords: American, Chinese Language Education, Immersion, Overview
Mandarin Immersion Programs in the United States: Challenges and Practices
Yiqi Xie & Yidan Shao, Ph.D. Student in ICI Program Fordham University, US
This presentation is about the existing challenges and practices of mandarin immersion programs in the United States. It aims at inspiring and attracting professionals in the Mandarin immersion field to think and discuss collaboratively on the possible practices to solve current challenges so that educators can promote the maturity of Mandarin immersion programs in the United States.
The presentation will bring real–life perceptions to Mandarin Immersion. This is an essential and vital topic to be worked on because 1) the need of Mandarin immersion programs in today's United States under the trend of globalization and immigration; 2) the existing challenges that Mandarin immersion teachers face and the need for practical and effective teaching strategies in their real–life teaching. Through the study of existing challenges and practices in Mandarin immersion programs, the angles of the conference will be enriched by up–to–date perspectives from educators who have experiences in Mandarin immersion. Meanwhile, the gap in the research on the challenges of Mandarin immersion is visible. This presentation will be helpful to fill in the gap and strengthen the Mandarin immersion programs in the United States. It will also contribute to the field of Mandarin immersion by collecting, analyzing, and summarizing the challenges and providing corresponding and practical solutions. By fully understanding the significance of effective education in Mandarin immersion, other institutes, schools, teachers, and even parents can make use of the more appropriate practices in guiding and educating Mandarin language learners, which will optimize the growth of students' experiences and the language programs in the United States.
Keywords: Mandarin Immersion, the United States, Challenges, Practices
Immersion Strategies that Work
Jianhua (Allen) Zhong, Washington Yu Ying PCS, Washington DC, US
With the use of immersion strategies, authentic resources as well as hands–on learning activities, students have the best chance possible to begin speaking in target language and loving it at an early age. In this presentation, the presenter will share the strategies and resources used in order to encourage students to speak target language on day one. Effective immersion strategies include but not limited to: comprehensible input, interactive read aloud and visible thinking routines. Finally, the presenter will walk through the design and implementation of a teaching unit that exemplifies the application of these strategies. Participants will walk away with a list of effective immersion strategies and they will have the opportunity to brainstorm ways to implement these strategies in their classroom the next day.
Keywords: Early Childhood, Immersion Strategies, Unit Design and Implementation
How does song adaptation help Chinese teaching?
Fang (Starry) He, Qingdao Yew Chung International School, Qingdao, China
In Chinese class, teachers can change the lyrics of some classic songs and incorporate the teaching content into them. Familiar melodies help students quickly memorize new lyrics, which in turn helps them remember new words and sentences.
Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences proposes that all people have different kinds of "intelligences." People do not have just an intellectual capacity, but have many kinds of intelligence, including musical, interpersonal, spatial–visual, and linguistic intelligences.
This presentation will discuss how songs can be adapted to help students learn vocabulary, practice sentence patterns, and practice listening, speaking, reading and writing. These songs can also show students' self–style and different cultural characteristics. At the same time, some related resources of Chinese adapted songs will also be shared.
Keywords: Song adaptation, Chinese teaching, Vocabulary, Sentence, Culture
Use Pinyin in Chinese class
Dandan Yang, Confucius Institute at Alfred University, NY, US
This report reflects my work in teaching pinyin to students ranging in grades two through six at Northstar Christian Academy. I will endeavor to demonstrate the effective methods used and the reactions from the students to the different forms of teaching a new language.
For ease of learning, pinyin has been used extensively since the 1950's as a critical tool for others to learn the Chinese language. For younger learners it is also helpful in fostering initiative and creating enthusiasm for learning a new language. Currently there does not exist a general agreement in the teaching community as to proper age of the student to begin learning Chinese using the pinyin method nor is there any set formal method to be used especially to those of a young age.
Seeking some guidance, I conferred with Confucius Institute Professor Qian Liu for her assistance and recommendations. With her encouragement, I began teaching the pinyin method to groups of students in grades two through six.
My exercises included basic sound rhythmic teaching skills by having students learning to sing rhyming songs. Prior to this portion of the class we would review the spelling of the new words along with proper pronunciation and use of the four tones. After this portion of the class we would conduct a phased hearing exercise to test the students' proper understanding and the word and to spell it correctly. This allowed me to be able to assess the students' level of comprehension on all levels, hearing, speaking, and writing. So that I could better measure the techniques I was using in the classroom I would check to see the reaction of each student and test them by flashing English words as well as pinyin to ensure there was no confusion between the two. Of course they are familiar with writing the words in English and now they will be able to create the same word using the Chinese language. From the many exercises, I observed that the students displayed a greater ease with the new language skills they were learning plus I noticed an eager desire to pronounce recently added new words. All of this increased their level of confidence as they became more comfortable and competent in the classroom.
I conclude that using the pinyin method in the classroom is an ideal way to teach the Chinese language to primary school age children.
Keywords: Pinyin, classroom management, comprehensible input,
 Xiang Zuo, Taisuke Sumii, Naoto Iwahashi et al. Correcting phoneme recognition errors in learning word pronunciation through speech interaction[J] Speech Communication, 2013, 55(1)
 Vanessa Borges–Almeida, Douglas Altamiro Consolo Testing oral proficiency: what does pronunciation tell us? DOI:10.5007/2175–8026.2011n60p247[J] Ilha do Desterro, 2011, 0(60)
 Majlinda Nuhiu Difficulties of Albanian Speakers in Pronouncing Particular English Speech Sounds[J] Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2013, 70(C)
Teaching Chinese Pinyin Online in Mongolian During the COVID–19 Pandemic: A Reflection
Pan Song, Graduate University of Mongolia, Mongolia
The outbreak of COVID–19 in 2020 affected people's life and work. It has also changed the concepts of education and teaching methods. To respond to the need of "stop classes without stopping school", the online teaching model relying on the Internet has become our choice. This article reflects on the author's experience of teaching Pinyin, the official romanization of the Chinese phonetic alphabet, to first graders in a Mongolian school during the epidemic period. Starting from the social background and academic conditions, this article analyzes design of the instruction and the teaching process. It also reports the students' learning outcomes and the feedback from the parents. Additionally, the article summarizes strategies for teaching Pinyin to younger learners of the Chinese language at three stages: pre–class, in–class, and after classes.
Keywords: online teaching, pinyin teaching, new crown epidemic, Chinese teaching
Preparation of Papers – Thoughts on Apps' Influences in Improving Foreign Children's Chinese Language Education Home
Tianyu Wu, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, China
In the "Internet+" era, how to use information technologies and media products to implement language education and optimize the language immersion quality is not only what language educators urgently want to solve, but also a key proposition for Chinese language education to transform in accordance with new challenges and requirements of its foreign users.
According to previous studies and practices, language environment greatly impacts language acquisition and education, let alone dual language education. Also, there is a younger–age trend of overseas Chinese learners shown in the Teaching Chinese to Speakers of Other Languages (TCSOL). A suitable language environment plays an important role in foreign language learning. But for foreign Chinese learners, their language learning is to a certain extent detached from the Chinese language environment. That is, learners are not surrounded by fluent speakers of the target language in a natural language environment. In the classroom setting, the teacher is also the only fluent speaker of the target language in most cases. However, they are always in short supply, which has been intensified by the influence of pandemic hindering the export of teacher resources from China. Without a large Chinese social language environment abroad, family language environment cannot be claimed too much in Chinese language education.
Recently, language learning apps used for dual language learning are prevailing in China, especially for English home tutoring. These apps' effective auxiliary functions assist home language education, forming an immersive language atmosphere, bringing out interests, as well as adding more interaction between family members. Comparing with the general English education environment and English competence of parents in China, foreign parents facing the similar difficulty in Chinese home tutoring find it more difficult to guide their children and have to send them into a specific language school.
With the help of related apps, home dual language education can simulate both a "school" environment and a "native" environment with individualized characteristics, in order to achieve the goal of "immersion" in language education. Apart from the certain language learning, undeliberate simple dialogues and repetition of words and topics in Chinese between family members will allows for children's better mastering and deeper understanding. It is also a chance to boost the intimate relationship in the family where parents and children learn and grow together.
The paper talks about why we should use apps and how apps integrate in foreign language education, especially in a home environment, as shown in the following table.
|Functional angle||Short term||Hold abundant resources||Add personalized experience|
|Used as self–taught||Guided & supervised by others|
|Convenient for any settings (e.g. fragmented using)||Need a wiser plan|
|Long term||Improve language literacy||Form overall learning ability|
|Emotional angle||Superficial term||Lead to good language outcome||Eager for more knowledge|
|Deep term||More interaction with family members||Good inter–family relationship|
Keywords: Apps, dual language education, home language education
Family Partnership Project
Shuping (Rachel) Song, Lewiston–Porter School District, NY, US
I found that Chinese families who immigrated to the United States lacked Chinese education for their children, or simply did not realize that Chinese gradually weakened or even vanished as their children grew up, especially for the second generation born in the United States. it has been completely assimilated by American culture and has no concept of Chinese or Chinese culture. When their children go to high school and are faced with entering college, parents and children realize the seriousness of the problem, they thought that Chines was their advantage, but it turned out that they could not speak Chinese or write Chinese characters at all. This paper focuses on analyzing the causes of this phenomenon from the perspectives of society and family in order to help families participate in children's Chinese learning and to change this phenomenon.
I am teaching Chinese in the United States for more than three years. There are five Chinese students among the 100 students. Three of them are second–generation Chinese, one immigrated to the United States with their parents at the age of 6, and another one is a Chinese child adopted by an American family. She was adopted when she was about 1 year old. Except for the student who emigrated with his parents when he was young, who can understand a bit Chinese, can write a few Chinese characters, and can communicate in simple Chinese, the other three students can not write Chinese characters at all or even understand Chinese. Why does this happen? The paper will analyze as follows:
- The reason why Chinese students can't speak Chinese or write Chinese characters: Social reasons; Family and students' own reasons.
- Problems encountered by Chinese students in learning Chinese.
- The importance and benefits of parents' engagement in children's learning Chinese.
- How do parents help their children overcome the difficulties above to learn Chinese?
Keywords: families participate, benefits, overcome the difficulties
The U.S. Nationally Recognized Assessments Options for Chinese Language Learners
Jian Liu, The Office of Bilingual Education and World Languages at the New York State Education Department, New York, USA
Most educators are not trained as the item writers for standardized tests. Using a high–quality and appropriate assessment is an effective way to measure students' learning and their language proficiency levels. However, many world languages educators may not know what assessment options are for Chinese language learners in the United States. In this session, participants will have a general overview of the nationally recognized assessment options for Chinese language learners. Also, the presenter will share information from the test frameworks for each assessment.
Keywords: assessment, recognized assessment options
Evaluation of Examination Papers and Enhancement Strategies for Designing Examination Questions
Peng Cheng, MA student of SOAS, University of London, UK
As a conventional and universal tool, written examination functions as a mechanism to 'assess the retention and application skills of students (Jones, Karl O., et al.; 2009).' Can today's written examination apply to the rapid changes of social needs? Compared to the past two decades ago during which normally those who pursued bachelor or higher degrees would choose to study aboard, recently, more and more families concerning the limited capacity of the domestic educational resources would prefer to encourage their children to adjust to international system at much younger ages, typically under 18. However, whether to maintain a connection with Chinese language and culture, and to what extend the connection should be upheld after their entering international schools becomes a challenge for both students and parents. This challenge unfolds primarily and typically through the design of the Chinese examination papers, especially at bilingual international schools. Nevertheless, most recent studies of teaching Chinese as a second language mainly focused on 'tertiary institutions, and very little research has been conducted at the primary and secondary level (Ma, Xiuli, et al.; 2017).' Using examination papers of a bilingual school in Shenzhen as an example, this paper aims to compare and contrast the examination questions and the productive learning outcomes of Chinese examination papers at international schools with examination papers at public schools to evaluate knowledge acceptance of students and teaching effectiveness of educators, and thus to summarize the possible assessment strategy behind academic performance when it comes to cross–cultural interactions and communication.
Keywords: exam paper, bilingual school, assessment strategy
American Multi–modal Chinese Teaching from the Perspective of Educational Psychology
Shuai Ma & Tahereh Boroughani, Ph.D. students, Bilingual Program, Texas A&M University, US
This paper discusses the teaching of American multi–modal language under the guidance of Educational Psychology. The researchers are taking Chinese teaching in New Orleans, Louisiana, as the research object, and exploring the feasible educational practice supported by the theory of educational psychology based on the teaching practice of local Chinese teachers. In theory, it is mainly related to Vygotsky's theory of Sociocultural theory, Krashen's theory of Comprehensible Input and Gardner's theory of Multiple Intelligence and so on. In the field of educational practice, this paper focuses on the analysis of the selected topics published educational theory works approved by the Ministry of Education, the Chinese and Foreign Language exchange and Cooperation Center of International Chinese Education key projects. The researchers study the nine Chinese teaching modes involving "play", "sing", "do", "see", "perform", "read", etc. The second chapter focuses on teaching using vivid objects as an example and how the first–line Chinese teachers teach in a more macro interdisciplinary, cross–cultural academic vision. The researchers try to explore the international Mandarin Chinese education using a new teaching model with integration of multi–modal teaching methods, and integration into the local culture and history. For in the international Chinese education setting, the connotation of the cause of professional, brand–oriented development would contribute a lot in the related field.
In addition to just teaching basic knowledge of The Chinese language, such as speech, vocabulary, sentence patterns and grammar, it is more important to stimulate students' interest in Mandarin Chinese and their love of culture. A variety of effective teaching forms in line with the principles of educational psychology are helpful to the realization of this goal. The exploration of the activities and classroom organization forms of first–line Chinese teaching not only has great practical application value, but also has higher value in second–language teaching theory and academic.
As far as theoretical theories are concerned, the research of this project itself embodies a new paradigm of contemporary international Chinese educational ideas and methods. In the 21st century, when modern science and technology are more developed and more globalized, multi–modal international Mandarin Chinese education is also a trend and a necessity for development. Multi–modal Chinese teaching is a comprehensive and diversified teaching mode in which teachers organize and manage many information forms, such as language text, data, audio, video frequency, pictures, objects, handcrafting, action performances, etc.
Keywords: Mandarin Chinese teaching in America, multimodal, educational psychology
A Preliminary Study of Differentiated Teaching Mode Integrating Sports Elements
Xiang Ying, Beijing Sport University, Beijing, China
The long–term goal of "a country strong in culture, country in education, country in talents, country in sports, and a healthy China" has promoted the exchanges and cooperation in the field of sports between China and foreign countries. The research on the integration of sports elements in international Chinese classroom teaching has also received more and more attention. At the beginning of 2020, the outbreak of the epidemic broke the conventional Chinese teaching model, and the traditional offline class teaching method could not adapt to the objective conditions, nor could it meet the learning needs of Chinese learners. At the same time, it has a greater impact on learners' learning enthusiasm and learning habits, resulting in more obvious differences in Chinese proficiency and sports specific interests among different students in the same class. Based on the above complex situation, how teachers use technical methods to construct a multi–level, differentiated, and efficient online teaching model that integrates sports elements, so that all learners with differences in the class can achieve optimal learning has become an urgent problem to be solved. In view of this, this article uses the document "Statistical Classification of Sports Industry (2019)" issued by the Sports Equipment and Equipment Center of the General Administration of Sport of China as the basis for topic classification. Based on three classic Chinese sports textbooks, the topics in the textbooks are classified and merged to ensure that all categories can cover all topics of the three textbooks and a questionnaire survey was conducted among Chinese learners of Beijing Sport University to survey their topic interests. On this basis, combined with differentiated teaching theory, from the three links of pre–class, in–class and after–class, integrate sports elements, explain sports words and actions, and arrange differentiated tasks. Finally put forward some suggestions in terms of changing teaching concepts and updating curriculum design concepts, so as to provide new ideas for online Chinese as a second language classroom teaching in a special period.
Keywords: Differentiated teaching theory, online teaching, sports elements, topic interest
Project–based Dual Language Learning in One–Teacher Classrooms
Ivy Li & Mandy Yang, Stamford American School Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
The majority of bilingual schools in Hong Kong follow a one–teacher–one–language model, so students are often engaged with parallel projects with two different teachers. In our school, one classroom teacher is in charge of teaching the elementary subjects in both languages.
Comparatively, many inquiry projects are designed to engage students' dual language skills in a continuity. We find that these projects enable students to use their translanguaging concepts and skills on a daily basis and make two–way connections. With the transferrable knowledge as a bridge, students are able to meet different language objectives required by the two languages and develop a thorough or deeper understanding of the target concepts.
In the presentation, we are going to share two cases of project–based dual language learning in elementary classrooms. One is an interdisciplinary project in Pre Primary (K3), where kindergarteners inquired into the school community and created an e–book introducing different school community members. Prior to the project, students had developed basic concepts of what a book is like and learned to plan their ideas across pages with pictures and words through English reading and writing workshops. The Chinese language objectives of this unit state that students will be able to memorize the names of familiar people and objects and know how to introduce them to someone using recited phrases. Therefore, students were first guided to identify different members at school and discuss their jobs and responsibilities in English. Then, the teacher taught students the names and roles of those members in Chinese. Then, students learned to use Book Creator, selected appropriate photos for their community book and recorded an oral presentation stating names and jobs of the chosen members. On the third day, the teacher led students to think about the needs and wants of a person at their job and brainstorm tools that people may need at school. At last, students learned the names of familiar objects at school, drew tools for their chosen members on the e–book and recorded voice telling what each person needs using recited words and phrases in Chinese.
The other project took place in a grade 3 classroom. The project aimed to guide students to go through the experimental design process, so that they were able to design an experiment independently to explore forces and motions. In English literacy, students had learned about procedure writing in grade 2. They need to learn to write and present basic instructions in Chinese in grade 3. The teacher connected the two strategies and designed this project. Students discussed their observations and asked a testable question on Day 1 in Chinese. On Day 2, they worked on their hypothesis in English and brainstormed the variables they were going to use in their experiment. On Day 3, students used what they learned in English procedure writing to write their experiment steps in Chinese and present in groups. They conducted their experiment on Day 4 in English and finally wrote their conclusions in Chinese on Day 5. In this way, students connected the language strategies that can be utilized in both languages and constructed new knowledge both in content and the two languages.
Keywords: project–based, dual language learning, translanguaging
Differentiated instruction in MFL classroom
Chuyue (Avril) Zhang, Middle School of Geneva School District, NY, US
Unlike immersion program or dual language program in elementary, Mandarin is included in World Language in Middle School of Geneva School District. Students are at different levels in every single class. Some are beginners while others learned for 1 year or 2 years or 3 years, some are even in Special education.
An effective and practical way to engage and support all the students is not only a personal choice, but also a real need in the classroom, especially in a foreign language classroom which has a wide variety of students.
That is where differentiation comes in. The goal of differentiated instruction is to put limited resources and teaching time into best use for all the students.
To explore how to implement Differentiated Instruction, I would like to share several strategies across four key axes: learning environment, content, process, and product on a practical level to solve real problems in a real bigger size MFL classroom, such as students' engagement, behavior and academy, based on my own teaching practice.
Many teachers are struggling most with two categories of students, the ones who are advanced and those who struggle. If teachers can not understand and provide what they need, it may result in frustration both for teachers and students. From this perspective, differentiated instruction is also a pathway to a better learning environment.
Keywords: differentiated instruction, MFL classroom
How to Make Language Proficiency Happen
Yuanbin Yao & Jiajie Wu, Utah Chinese DLI Class Room Teacher and State Team, UT, US
Learning a foreign language requires a great deal of practice, dedication, motivation, and hard work. Language proficiency refers to how students can use language with a level of accuracy that effectively communicates meaning in both production and comprehension. Learning Chinese as a second language is a complex and lengthy process. In Chinese Dual Language Immersion (DLI) classrooms, teachers help students develop language proficiency over time, through various classroom activities and interaction opportunities. Teachers must recognize that language proficiency doesn't just happen. Every minute counts in the DLI classroom. All instruction and activities need to be designed intentionally and purposefully to assist students to improve their language proficiency. However, one of the greatest challenges Chinese DLI educators encounter, is how to push students' language proficiency to the next level during the limited time together in the classroom environment. In this presentation, the presenters will use a model of the "Morning Meeting" as an example to demonstrate how to design a daily morning routine intentionally and purposefully to make language proficiency happen. The Morning Meeting will include 4 sections: Greetings (interview greeting; math match card greeting; one minutes greeting; what's your place value), Sharing (around circle sharing; partner sharing), Whole–group Activity (wind blows; guess the number; cooper says) and Morning Message (sentence frame; message format). The presenters will demonstrate how to design a meaningful Morning Meeting using a 4–section structure and give real–life context to engage students and improve language production, while simultaneously increasing students' opportunities to respond within a limited time period. We hope this presentation can help Chinese DLI educators learn how to design routines and activities intentionally, to make language proficiency happen.
Keywords: DLI classroom, language proficiency, morning meeting
The Practice of Communicative Language Teaching in Mandarin Immersion Guided Reading
Yanping (Lena) Chen, Middle School of Geneva School District, NY, US
Communicative language teaching (CLT) is an approach to language teaching that emphasizes interaction as both the means and the ultimate goal of study. The purpose of Guided Reading is to rapidly improve student reading levels while deepening comprehension and love of reading. So, in this essay, the author has tried to apply the Communicative Language Teaching into her Mandarin immersion guided reading through organizing various activities, such as role–play, interviews, group work, information gap and so on. What is the most important in this essay is that the author summarized why, what and how she has done during her practice of mandarin guided reading. At last, the author having reflected what are supposed to be improved from the teachers, students and school aspects in the future guided reading teaching. The essential goal of the practice of communicative language teaching in Mandarin Immersion guided reading is to deepen the love of students' reading and create independent readers on Mandarin learning.
Keywords: Communicative Language Teaching, Mandarin immersion guided reading; Independent Readers
Diversity, Equity and Inclusion in Elementary Dual Immersion Instruction
Yunliang Bao, Foothills Elementary, Jordan School District, UT, US
My presentation is about how to promote the awareness of Diversity, Equity and Inclusion among elementary DLI students. The world we live in always need more advocates on DEI. Language teachers carry an enormous responsibility to promote understanding between cultures. To help students become the future advocates, language teachers need to advocate it first in the daily instruction. Guided by the essential question and the sub–focus questions, this presentation will give other elementary DLI teachers an example of how to design a unit that integrates textbook information into this broad topic of DEI, and lead students to an understanding and appreciation of Diversity, and therefore see the value of Equity and Inclusion.
Keywords: Diversity, Equity, Inclusion
Creating a Real Chinese–language Context and Practice Space, Cultivating Students' Language Ability
Leyi (Vicky) Zhong, Middle School of Geneva School District, NY, US
Chinese language teachers face a challenge when teaching Chinese as a second language in other countries in view of the lack of a Chinese–language environment, which prevents them from consolidating and applying what they have learned in real life. Repetitive input will just make the Chinese lesson lose its vitality. As Benjamin Franklin said: Tell me, and I'll forget; teach me, and I'll remember; involve me, and I'll learn. The more the students are involved, the more they will learn and remember. This is why, I work to create a real Chinese–language context and practice space both inside and outside classroom.
Chinese class activity: language skills and cultural awareness
- In the classroom
- Close to end of each semester, Chinese–I students are required to ask and reply questions in Chinese with a partner, helped by an English outline on the whiteboard of what they learned that semester. I video each pair, since this also counts as the semester's oral test.
- My Chinese–II and Chinese–III students are required to do role play – one as a waitress, the other three as friends eating in a Chinese restaurant. These performances look great on video, showing varied vocabulary and the correct use of the Chinese "measuring words".
- Outside the classroom
- My Chinese–I students are asked to make a Pinyin video introducing the initials and vowels, showing admirable passion, talents and creativity.
- At the end of the semester, my Chinese–I students are asked to make a video in which they introduce themselves and their family in Chinese. This practice helps to create a link between the community and our Chinese class: family members engage in the activity, and enjoy learning a few Chinese sentences.
- Cultural awareness. The lesson about China's Mid–autumn Day gave the students an understanding of the Chinese people's reverence for the moon. My students can recite the Chinese poem Jing ye si by Li Bai and sing the famous Chinese song "The Moon Represents My Heart", with musical accompaniment by other students. The video shows them reciting the poem with great feeling, and with a real understanding of the rhyme and cadences of the Chinese poem. In the Moon Song video, the students exhibit their musical talents, showing their understanding of the hidden meaning in the Chinese moon song.
This kind of language practice allows the students to not only acquire the necessary linguistic abilities, but also to find great joy in achieving them. It also allows students at different levels to cooperate with more advanced students and learn through peer power.
Keywords: Chinese–language context, activity, cultural awareness
Preliminary Exploration of TPRS in Teaching Chinese as a Second Language
Wenfang Gao, Confucius Institute at Alfred University, NY, US
Teaching Proficiency through Reading and Storytelling (TPRS) is widely used in the teaching of foreign languages such as Spanish and French in the United States. In recent years, it has gradually been used in foreign Chinese teaching. This article explores how the author uses TPRS in Chinese teaching in American primary and secondary schools. Taking the author's teaching practice as an example, this article elaborates on the three cores teaching using TPRS: 1). Vocabulary teaching, 2). Writing stories, 3). Asking stories. Teaching practice shows that using TPRS in teaching improves students' Chinese proficiency and communication skills.
Keywords: TPRS, comprehensible input, vocabulary teaching, story–making, story–telling
Second Language Acquisition of Chinese in Secondary Schools of North America
Jing Wu, St Joseph's Collegiate Institute, Buffalo, NY, US
This paper is on the second language acquisition of Chinese in secondary school of North America through class activities. The author mainly focuses on: 1，The possibility of Second language Acquisition of Chinese in class in North America. 2，What affects the language teaching and learning in second language acquisition. 3，What teaching method will be applied during the learning and teaching process. 4, the differences between second language acquisition and immersion class. The research method applied in the study includes literature review, setting up comparison groups, comparing pretest and posttest randomized experimental control group to examine the effect of in class acquisition of Chinese.
Keywords: Second language acquisition of Chinese, Chinese immersion class, Teaching Chinese as a second language